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Optical computer. When light is the future of electronics

Over the past 4 decades, the electronics industry has been developing according to the so-called "Moore's Law",
 which states that the power of computing processors doubles every two years. During his tenure at Intel, 
co-founder Gordon Moore realized that the number of transistors the industry could fit on a processor die 
would double every 24 months.
And, as we can see, something similar is really happening: computers and phones that seemed powerful a few 
years ago, compared to the latest innovations, already look outdated. Meanwhile, manufacturers are introducing
 ever new microprocessors capable of performing even more operations per unit of time.
Transistors - These tiny semiconductors are the backbone of all modern technology. They are getting smaller and 
more energy efficient every year. But there must be some limit to their reduction? Yes, and we got very close to it.

A modern transistor consists of two semiconductors with an excess of electrons and a semiconductor with a lack 
of electrons in between. Above them are a control gate and a dielectric-insulated floating gate. When a voltage is 
applied to the control gate, part of the electrons will be transferred to the floating gate due to the tunneling effect.
The idea of ​​creating a processor called "optical" appeared quite a long time ago - in the 80s, when the industry did
 not even think that in a couple of decades the performance of electronic processors would reach its limit. In those 
days, the optical processor was perceived as an alternative and simply interesting replacement for a conventional
 electronic processor. But now it becomes clear that optical computers are our future.

 
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